RELIABILITY INVESTIGATIONS OF BIPOLAR SILICON PHOTOTRANSISTOR ARRAYS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS

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In June of 1948, the Bell Telephone Laboratories announced and demonstrated
publicly a semiconductor amplifier invented by Bardeen and Brattain, and coined
for it the name “transistor”, a contraction of transfer-resistor. That transistor was a
point-contact transistor that consisted of a very small piece of germanium with two
fine wires contacting its surface, separated from each other. In the following years,
Shockley’s classic paper on junction diodes and transistors was published. On the
basis of theory, a junction transistor different in structure would have useful
properties.